Putrajaya, Malaysia, October 2017—TRAFFIC joined forces with several government agencies in Malaysia to review a draft of timber trade guidelines that, once finalised, will help Customs officers across the globe verify legal timber passing through border check points.
Uslaini or Chaus comes from a farming family of the Minangkabau indigenous tribe in West Sumatra. She is also an activist and work for the development of rural communities and forest conservation. Chaus is the Director of WALHI Sumatra Barat in Indonesia, which works among forest and indigenous communities (Walhi is GFC member in Asia region). This is Chaus’ photo essay which is originally published by Magdalene, a women and gender news platform in Indonesia. Enjoy the photo essay here.
The post Indigenous West Sumatran Women Protect Forest appeared first on Global Forest Coalition.
In Peru, REDD+ communities recognize non-cash benefits to conservation
Deforestation in Brazil's Amazon fell 16 percent in the year to July 2017 compared to the same period a year prior, the first decline in three years, the country's environment minister said.
Along with taking lives and causing millions of dollars in property damage, the wildfires in California are scorching the land in another way: Millions of trees are being destroyed. Source: CBS News The blazes have charred more than 770,000 acres in the state alone, as fires around the country seemingly grow more destructive by the year. Yet even that eye-opening number is a fraction of the devastation happening globally. The planet loses billions of trees every year due to a range of factors, including fire, illegal logging and clearance for agriculture. “Trees are being lost at the rate of about a football field a second,” said David Skole, professor of forestry at Michigan State University. “If you’re watching the Michigan Wolverines play Michigan State and they go into overtime, every time the clock ticks down, a forest the size of that field disappears.” While governments and environmental groups have committed to re-foresting depleted parts of the world. “We aren’t doing the work fast enough,” added Lauren Fletcher. Mr Fletcher, who spent 20 years as an engineer at NASA and Lockheed Martin thinks he has a solution: drones. His company, BioCarbon Engineering, uses drones and data analysis to do large-scale replanting in areas that would otherwise take years to re-plant by hand. The system works in two steps. First, a surveillance drone surveys an area to collect information about its soil type, climate, existing flora and other attributes to determine which plant species to introduce. “It’s not just trees — a healthy ecosystem has a variety of species that have to be planted,” he said. Then, a planting drone is loaded with biodegradable “pods” that contain seeds and a nutritional mixture to help them germinate. Flying 10 feet above the ground, the drone fires the pods at the ground with enough force to penetrate the soil. This approach isn’t theoretical – it’s being used today. The company completed a planting project in Australia in May and is “pretty much oversubscribed for the next year,” Mr Fletcher said, with projects in Myanmar, the Philippines and the UK. Re-foresting efforts in Canada, Brazil and the Us are on the horizon. “With our system, two people will be operating a small swarm of drones, and they will be able to plant 100,000 trees a day,” he said. “If you get 600 teams working around the world, we will be able to plant a billion trees a year — and that’s a scale that makes a difference.” Not all the seedlings survive, but Fletcher said his method has comparable survival rates to hand-planting seeds, which vary from 20% to 70%, depending on the species. Mainly, it’s cheaper and faster, which allows for many more trees to planted in a given time period. And speed and scale could be a game-changer for temperate areas. “Planting trees has a very limited season, depending on where you are in the world,” Mr Fletcher said. “If you’re in the northern hemisphere, the Canadian Rockies, you’re lucky to get a couple of months.” Drones also have the advantage of access: Unlike humans, they can plant on dangerously steep inclines or at forbidding altitudes. “If you could plant 60 times what you’re doing today at five times cheaper, you can imagine how much restoration work you could do,” Mr Fletcher said. Interestingly, although most of the entities working with forest restoration are governments or nonprofits, the for-profit nature of BioCarbon Engineering could give it an edge as polluters look to offset their activities and as the global community moves to reach targets outlined under the Paris climate accord. “When you start valuing the ecosystem services, as in the sequestration of carbon, you have more environmental finance markets that are springing up, and those do place a value on the ecosystem service,” Mr Skole said. One possible model for BioCarbon, he said, would be to take degraded land, reforest it, measure the amount of carbon it’s sequestering and then sell those credits. Regardless of what method is used to save them, trees’ value is set grow as climate change accelerates and countries take steps to limit the warming. Research shows as much as half of the carbon reduction the world needs to meet international targets could happen through planting trees. That has another benefit, Mr Skole said. “If you look at all the options for climate change mitigation out there, the forestry and agriculture ones are the most cost effective.”
A landowner group in Temotu province of Solomon islands says logging is underway on their land without consent. Source: Radio New Zealand According to locals on Temotu’s largest island Nende there are three logging camps in operation there without the required permits. The logging company, Malaysia-based Xiang Lin, earlier claimed to have permission from a former Temotu Provincial executive to operate on Nende. However, no environmental impact assessments were reported to have been submitted, nor any timber rights hearings completed. Dudley Mali of the Nende Resource Development Association said landowners were not happy that early logging activity has begun without their consent. “The Temotu Provincial executive has rejected the timber rights, so we see it as illegal logging by that company. Now we are filing restraining orders on some of the blocks.”
A new smartphone app has been developed to predict the moisture content of log piles undergoing infield drying. Inputs in the preliminary version of the app include log type, tree species, location and season. Source: Timberbiz Future development will include more specific weather information. The app was developed as part of a project funded by Forest and Wood Products Australia (FWPA) to maximise cost-savings. Infield log drying has the potential to significantly reduce transport costs by reducing moisture content, and the weight, of the load. That’s not surprising when you consider that water accounts for over 50% of the weight of freshly harvested logs. Researchers funded by FWPA with support from the Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), conducted field trials in various weather conditions to measure drying rates. This information was used to create an initial version of a smartphone app to predict drying rates over time. Vital data was collected through ongoing testing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus log piles, as well as a number of individual logs for comparison. While this data was used to develop a preliminary version of the predictive smartphone app, further development will see certain deficiencies in the data addressed through additional testing and research. Future projects will examine: different drying rates in different log types, and in different conditions and locations value and volume loss resulting from infield log and biomass storage the potential for loading trucks with additional volumes of dry versus green material means of paying for logs, chips or biomass based on their moisture content or volume, rather than their green weight balancing the costs and revenues from infield drying to determine optimum storage times for logs and biomass.
Michelle Harrison takes health and safety in the forestry industry very seriously. The 35-year-old, who won Trainee of the Year at this year’s Northland Forestry Awards, also looks out for kiwi during log harvesting. Sources: The Northern Advocate, New Zealand Herald She lives in rural Okaihau with her family. She has always worked with her husband, Nigel, in forestry, and two years ago the couple started their own logging crew, Wise on Wood Ltd. Husband Nigel said it’s a balancing act for Michelle. “Since joining the business Michelle has found time to concentrate on her own personal development and qualifications,” he said. “That’s no mean feat considering she works fulltime, looks after me and the boys, does the bookwork, runs the health and safety programme and still helps out in the community. “Michelle is our rock when it comes to health and safety. She spends endless hours at night researching and keeping up with others discoveries and misfortunes in the industry. This is a real asset in our crew,” he said. Michelle said being a female in the forestry industry was not always easy and to receive the Trainee of the Year award was recognition for the hard work she had put in over the years. Her training is ongoing and she recently completed her Level 3 National certificate in business. In 2016, she was appointed a contract assessor for the industry training organisation for forestry, Competenz. “There were a shortage of assessors who assess theory-based units in Northland,” said her husband. “Michelle has the skills to read and interpret questions, rephrasing them so a logger can understand them. She has a true commitment to training and to improving our industry.” Recently Michelle has been working with DOC in the block it is currently logging, learning to locate kiwi with transmitters and moving them throughout the block as required to keep them out of harm’s way while harvesting. “The job is very challenging but also rewarding. In the 20ha block there were eight kiwi with transmitters, and we have managed to keep them all safe, plus discovered and caught three more,” she said. Nigel said: “All this plus cutting all the wood our crew gets to the skid each day. It shows Michelle’s commitment to both production and environmental values.” This is the second year the Northland Forestry Awards have been held. Organisers are pleased with the increased number of entries and support they received from the wider industry and sponsors. “These awards are showing in this second year, how important they are for the industry in Northland because it is a chance to role model the professionals we have and continue the development of our safety culture within the region,” said Andrew Widdowson, chair of the awards organising committee and spokesman for the Northland Wood Council. “The Northland Forestry Awards provide us with an occasion to celebrate the industry and the positive impact it has for the region, the fantastic people we have working on the ground and the opportunities if offers.”
What if forestry yield estimates could be calculated sitting in front of a computer using Virtual Reality (VR) technology, rather than going out into the field? Source: Timberbiz A FWPA funded project looking into exactly that has recently been profiled in the Brazilian forestry publication Referência Florestal Magazine. Researchers from the University of Tasmania and others are collaborating in two current FWPA projects, conducting a study that links forest inventory data, dense point cloud data processing and VR. The research is an extension of the FWPA project Deployment and integration of cost-effective, high spatial resolution, remotely sensed data for the Australian forestry industry, and brings in the expertise of the University of Tasmania’s HITLAB. The research is also closely connected to the work of another FWPA project, Optimising remotely acquired, dense point cloud data for plantation inventory. Currently still in the feasibility stage, the project is investigating the potential of immersive VR in three key areas: the rendering of dense 3D point cloud data, the development of tools to extract 3D tree measurements, and the potential application of VR to stem quality assessments. The project is working with P radiata dense point cloud data acquired from a variety of terrestrial and aerial platforms and sensors. The aim is to assess the capability of VR technologies and workflows to increase operational efficiency, as well as to improve occupational safety of inventory crews. Researchers believe there is the potential to fundamentally change the way forest inventory operations are managed. A report on the project’s findings will be published in December. If the research demonstrates real value in VR methods, the researchers hope to secure further funding to progress the research and development, with the goal of effectively integrating VR into operational workflows.
As senior manager at the Forestry Corporation, Mr Kearney manages logging and timber harvesting for native forests and eucalyptus plantations across New South Wales. Source: ABC News The organisation has come under criticism from former Labor environment minister Bob Debus and environmental groups who say it’s destroying koala habitats and leaving forests “smashed to the ground.” “Koala populations have plummeted by 50% on the north coast in the past 20 years due to under-regulated logging,” Susie North from the North Coast Environment Council said. Mr Kearney strongly disagrees. “We’ve got the balance right between protecting koalas and harvesting timber,” he said. “We’ve got some exciting research that’s showing there are healthy koala populations out in the bush.” Mr Kearney he said that harvesters used digital technology to map out projects. In a joint project with the Department of Primary Industries, sound recorders called song meters are being used to map out koala populations — particularly areas that are being harvested. “Song meters provide us with some pretty good data on the koala populations we do have,” Mr Kearney said. “The results from the first 100 sites showed 80% occupancy and there are good signs we have a stable koala population.” Mr Kearney said Forestry officers go out to digitally map koala populations on iPad technology, before any harvesting of the area takes place. Habitat trees are left alone, while groups of trees containing more substantial koala populations are highlighted red on iPad software and made off limits to loggers. “The timber we produce are independently certified by the Australian Forestry Standard,” he said. “The idea is that we’re here to produce timber in perpetuity.” Environmental groups and former Labor environment minister Bob Debus said they were not so confident about Forestry’s practices. Mr Debus recently joined the North East Forest Alliance to inspect logging sites around Port Macquarie and Taree, including Lorne State Forest, which the groups are claiming as “illegal”. “What I saw was clear felling, forests smashed to the ground over 10 to 15 hectare allotments,” he said. “Many years ago we had a settlement whereby particularly under forestry operational agreements where logging would be carried out in a sustainable way. “What we now see is completely destructive.” Forestry NSW has maintained it does not clear fell any native state forests. It said the picture was likely to have been taken at a log dump that was cleared to store the timber harvested from the area. It also said eucalyptus plantations, which are heavily harvested, were located near some of the state forests in that area. During protests outside Forestry’s Coffs Harbour office, the North East Forest Alliance called for logging to be banned in 175,000 hectares of north coast state forest to help create a Great Koala National Park. The proposal has been rejected by the State Government, but the timber industry was concerned about the traction it had gained with the Greens, and the opposition Labor Party. The timber industry contributes more than $1 billion to the NSW economy per year and employs more than 22,000 people, according to Forestry Corporation figures. Most of the timber logged on the north coast is used for high end-timber flooring and products for architectural design. Douglas Head is the director of Australian Solar Timbers, a 100-year-old local family-run timber business at Kempsey. He was worried the region’s entire timber industry would be obliterated if plans for a Great Koala Park ever went ahead. “It’s ludicrous, absolutely ludicrous. This will destroy us and any other timber business on the north coast. His timber business, worth tens of millions of dollars, is one of the biggest on the north coast and employs between 60 to 100 people at any given time. “Nothing goes to waste because you’ve got to use everything including the sawdust; you’ve got to process everything,” he said. Mr Head argued there was a complete lack of economic detail behind the plan for a koala park, as well as the cost to consumers and the community. “These are some of the greatest hardwoods in the world; they’re sustainably logged,” Mr Head said. With many of his workers in their early to late twenties, Mr Head said towns like Kempsey, which already had high unemployment rates, would be devastated. “There are limited opportunities in the Malley Valley; they [workers] will either retire or go on the dole,” he said. Mr Head hoped environmentalists and the forestry corporation could find a way beyond the impasse because he explained there was potential for incredible growth for the timber market going into the future. “The fibre of the century has been declared as timber — how dumb are we if we can’t run forestry?”
New Zealand’s northern iwi welcome a call to re-establish a Forestry Service, saying more investment should be put into processing the wood. Source: Radio New Zealand Winston Peters has revealed one of New Zealand First’s priorities for coalition talks is the future of forestry, saying a new government must safeguard wood supply by creating a Forest Service, a long-term plan, new state forests and possibly a local quota system like Canada’s. The policy to ensure the supply of raw logs for both the domestic and export industries has been welcomed by Māori working in Northland’s forestry sector. Rangitane Marsden, the chief executive of Ngāi Takato is one leader that was on board with the idea. “Everyone trying to convince Māori – post treaty settlements – that our fortunes lie in foreign investment: Well, hang on. “Our fortunes lie in better utilisation of our land, putting our people to work, manufacturing products locally. “With NZ First indicating that they have concerns about immigration and foreign policies running our country we agree, I think, to a degree. We’d prefer energy was being put into local investment not foreign investment.” He’s not alone. Pita Tipene from Ngāti Hine’s Forestry Trust was part of a 4000-strong meeting in 2014 where Mr Tipene said they were united. “The tenor of the kōrero was a lot of anger, a lot of frustration that the value of the forest wasn’t been retained in the valleys where the trees were being grown.” The Ngāti Hine shareholders are part of a larger Māori Trust which entered into an agreement with Carther Holt Harvey 35 years ago. Mr Tipene remembers how difficult the decision was for whānau to amalagmate their shares into one Trust, and remembers sitting at the dinner table as a 12-year old as his mum and dad debated the benefits. “I can remember her saying ‘I’m going to commit my shares to this trust because it will give jobs to Pita sitting right here eating his meal’. Did it? Very few of our people ever got a job in the Ngāti Hine forestry.” Northland has a high unemployment rate for young people, Stats NZ shows 28.7% of those aged 20 to 24 years are not in work, training or education. Former trustee and current Labour MP Peeni Henare said the forestry deals had not provided work. “If you look at those leases they essentially were a ripoff,” Henare said. “They were basically just leasing out the land so back to our shareholders of Ngāti Hine. The move to have our raw product processed here in Aotearoa will only achieve that, it’ll give them employment, it will sustain the local economy.” Mr Marsden said the foreign companies that hold leases over Māori lands “rape and pillage” them. “Where the opportunity’s to export manufactured product to China, what’s the opportunities to process a lot of that stuff using new technologies for specific markets in China,” he said. “At the moment it’s ‘cut down every tree, we can put it on a truck as fast we can and export it to China’ and then we buy it back, which is even more ridiculous.” Those milling timber agree, with Kevin Hing from the Timber Industry Federation saying sawmills were having to bite the bullet as they watch raw logs exported offshore. “Most of them would at some time experience a shortage of logs. It may be that the shortage has caused them to work a short week say a 3 to 4 days week because they don’t have enough logs.” Mr Hing says he estimates the 100 or so sawmills he represents would be able to immediately process another 20% more logs if they could get their hands on them. Māori in the forestry industry say they could work with local mills to return profits back to the regions.
Researchers funded by timber companies and the Federal Government plan to create new business models to boost Australia’s wood stocks, using farmland. Source: The Weekly Times But the sector’s chequered history with investment models, and lack of clear government policy means gaining farmers’ trust to sign up to new, farm forestry programs would be a significant hurdle. This is according to researchers, consultants and farmers. Professor Rod Keenan, project leader of the University of Melbourne’s two-year $900,000 project, said any new schemes must be built on long-term partnerships between landowners and forestry companies. There were lessons to be learned from Managed Investment Schemes of the 2000s — driven by tax benefits and capital gains credits — which were “not desirable, there was lot of social push-back”, Prof Keenan said. “This is recognised by the industry. “The future lies in integrating industries (farming and forestry). There is a large area of farmland in Australia where different types of planted forest could be integrated with existing agriculture.” The project would “test different approaches” in two Victorian pilot areas: Colac-Otway and Gippsland. Agribusiness Valuations Australia consultant Sam Paton said farmers were “understandably very cynical” about agroforestry after the “monoculture mess of bluegums” created by the “appallingly lax MIS legislation, put in without any oversight”. “That distrust will be very hard to mend,” he said. “Any new scheme should not have government overlays that give upfront deductions; that is what attracts the blowflies and causes distortions.” Lismore farmer and timber grower Andrew Lang said the study was “reinventing the wheel”. Much planning to develop agroforestry had already been done, he said, but had lapsed due to “negligence” by state and federal governments. Growers needed clear strategies and consistent policies, preferably including saleable carbon offsets or credits, Mr Lang said. But commercial timber production on a mixed farm was achievable, he said, citing his own farm which had 5% of land planted to multipurpose sawlog trees and was “almost carbon neutral”. Deans Marsh agroforestry consultant Hugh Stewart said there was a niche for farm-based plantings of commodity species — such as radiata pine — and speciality species to produce structural timbers for domestic building. Hancock Victoria Plantations, Midway, Australian Paper, AKD Softwoods and OneFortyOne Plantations are the companies behind the study.
WA Environment Minister Stephen Dawson said the release of the Barrabup Forest assessment report marked the end of the review process, despite concerns warning against the new procedure used to identify old growth. Source: Busselton Mail Documents, requested by South West MP Diane Evers, included emails between the director of the Conservation and Parks Commission and a bureaucrat in the Department of Parks and Wildlife. The emails discussed draft procedures to determine which areas of WA’s native forests were ‘old growth’, and warranted protection from logging. In the documents, CPC director Roland Mau warned DPAW acting director of forest and ecosystem management Jason Foster that the draft procedures would have, ‘profound ramifications for the mapping of old growth forest’. Mr Mau further warned that DPAW’s new threshold meant that even an area that was unambiguously old-growth forest may not be protected. South West MP Diane Evers said the documents confirmed that the new procedures would not accurately identify nor protect all of WA’s old growth forests. “The new procedures were finalised when the Environment Minister had barely been two weeks in the job; the Minister says it was done without his knowledge,” she said. “While this may absolve him from blame, it is essential he steps in now and goes back to the CPC for its unimpeded advice on how old growth forest assessments should be conducted. “The Minister must also retract the old growth assessment for Barrabup forest that he released as it was done as a first ‘test case’ using the new procedures. “It has produced the highly unlikely conclusion that less than 10 per cent of the proposed harvest area is old growth – a figure that falls well short of the expectations of experienced individuals who surveyed the area.” Environment Minister Stephen Dawson said the fact that 43 hectares had been identified as old-growth was evidence the new processes was effective. He also received advice the new procedure would identify similar or more old growth than CPC. Barrabup Conservation Group spokesperson Ellie McKie said if the issue was assessed under the previous process more areas of old growth would have been saved. Ms McKie said the Forest Product Commission started their operation months before the criteria changed and the old growth assessment should have been done by the CPC. “The McGowan government made a promise to protect all high conservation forests so there are many people expecting them to honour this and declare Barrabup a formal conservation park.”
A world-first DNA feat by New Zealand scientists could boost the way we grow the star species of our plantation forests. Source: The New Zealand Herald By completing a draft assembly of the radiata pine’s genetic make-up, or genome, researchers at Crown research institute Scion have opened the door to a new era of precision forestry for the critically important species. The genome assembly began in 2013 and was completed last month, using the Rotorua based institute’s newly acquired high-capacity computer server – the largest of its kind undertaking genomics work in New Zealand. The official announcement on the completion of the genome assembly was made at the Forest Growers Research Conference in Christchurch this week. “The completion of the genome assembly means that we now have an instruction book for how a radiata tree grows,” said Scion’s Dr Emily Telfer, who led the project. “It’s the foundation we need to begin the task of deciphering what each of the base pairs of DNA relates to in physical terms.” At 25 billion base pairs, the radiata pine genome is eight times bigger than the human genome. Following assembly, the next steps are to understand each piece of the genome and the role it plays in tree growth and resilience. The sheer size of the genome was a large challenge to researchers. “This is not the kind of problem we could fix just by throwing resources at it,” Telfer said. “We had to come up with a way to segment the genome, process it and put it back together again.” With this knowledge, the forestry industry could breed trees with their desired characteristics – hastening the current method of selective breeding that can take decades to produce superior trees. Once geneticists understood the genome better, there could be yet more advances. “We could breed a whole range of different trees – from construction timber to biofuels.” Another major advantage could be in mitigating the effects of climate change and disease. As environments altered with the climate, diseases not previously found in New Zealand might establish here and threaten our forests. Thanks to genomics, scientists would be able to identify genes with drought and disease resistance, and establish them in the wider population much faster, Telfer said. The genome assembly would also benefit the international scientific and forest growing community. Radiata is the backbone of New Zealand’s forestry industry, but was also the most domesticated pine in the world and is grown commercially in Australia, Chile, Spain and South Africa.
The Options Assessment Framework tool is provided on an "open source" basis to help policy makers assess their country's readiness for REDD+ benefit sharing mechanisms.
Every two years the European Paper Recycling Council (EPRC) rewards the best, brightest and most innovative paper recycling projects from across the continent with the prestigious European Paper Recycling Award. This year’s award ceremony, which took place on October 18, is jointly hosted by MEP Ms. Simona Bonafè (Italy), rapporteur of the Circular Economy dossier and Ms. Inés Ayala Sender (Spain).
Favini, a leading global producer of packaging for the luxury and fashion industries, topped the Innovative Technologies and R&D category for its Remake project, a ground-breaking process of using recycled leather to produce paper. Aspapel, the Spanish pulp & paper association headed up the Information and Education category with its creative ‘Blue Birdies’ project targeted towards raising awareness on the separate collection of paper across municipalities in Spain.
“Today’s winners are the pioneers that are paving the way the European paper recycling value chain is advancing paper recycling to the next level” says Lisa Kretschmann, Chairperson of the EPRC
“Whether it be inventive companies or municipalities willing to ‘step outside the box’, their role is crucial in helping the value chain reach its 74% recycling rate by 2020.” says Ulrich Leberle, Secretary of the EPRC/Raw Materials Director at CEPI
These two projects stood out from the crowd in terms of their originality, innovativeness, measured achievement and ability to be reproduced across Europe. Other commended entries which also scored highly include:
Innovative Technologies and R&D category:
• IMPACTPapeRec, a Horizon 2020 funded project on boosting separate collection of paper
• Comieco’s (Italy) online contest “#iorompolescatole” (in English: “I break boxes”) on raising awareness of recycling paper & board packaging from e-commerce
• SCA’s Circular Economy project entitled “Closing the loop for paper hand towels”
Information and Education category:
• Lucart (Italy): separating cellulose from beverage cartons to be reused for tissue production
• Paptic (Finland): a light & durable material based on renewable and recyclable wood fibres
Learn more on how the EPRC is improving best practices in paper recycling and helping Europe reach its 74% paper recycling rate on the dedicated website here. Full information on all entries can be consulted here.
For more information, please contact Ulrich Leberle, Secretary of the EPRC/Raw Materials Director at CEPI by email firstname.lastname@example.org or by phone on (+32) 262 7 49 23.
For press related enquiries, please contact Ben Kennard, Press Manager at CEPI by email email@example.com or by phone on (+32) 487 39 21 82.
A new study examined the relationship between the availability of nature near city dwellers' homes and their brain health. Its findings are relevant for urban planners among others.
Sprawling mining operations in Brazil have caused roughly 10 percent of all Amazon rainforest deforestation between 2005 and 2015 -- much higher than previous estimates -- says the first comprehensive study of mining deforestation in the iconic tropical rainforest. Surprisingly, the majority of mining deforestation (a full 90%) occurred outside the mining leases granted by Brazil's government, the new study finds.
Community forests play an important role within Indonesia. Covering just 2.3 million hectares, these forests support the livelihoods of more than 3.4 million households. The Indonesian national forest certification system achieved PEFC endorsement in 2014, and since then, more than 3 million...
-- Delivered by Feed43 service